Download e-book for kindle: Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds by L. Mázor

By L. Mázor

ISBN-10: 0080179037

ISBN-13: 9780080179032

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In the elimination reactions of halogen compounds, h o w - 45 PROPERTIES, PREPARATION AND REACTIONS ever, the most c o m m o n example is the elimination of atoms from adjacent carbon atoms, (α, β elimination reactions), so a double bond develops. F o r example, two chlorine atoms are released from perchloro compounds a n d a perchloro olefin is produced. When hydrogen atoms are also present, a p r o t o n a n d a halogen a t o m are released, so that dehydrohalogenation takes place. The elimination reactions can be classified according to the sequence of the removal of the halogen and the proton.

The most important process is the substitution of halogens by hydrogen. F r o m an analytical point of view, the catalytically activated hydrogen and cathodic reduction procedures are particularly important, as they can be used efficiently for all halogens except fluorine. Reduction of iodine can be achieved most easily; bromine and chlorine require increasingly severe treatment. Cathodic reduction processes take place so rapidly and completely that they are widely used in the Polarographie determination of organic molecules.

Slowly heat the bulb to bright redness with a microburner. After cooling, add 2-3 drops of dilute nitric acid and heat the mixture on a hot water bath for some minutes. Recover precipitated silver halides for further investigation. Although the method is not more sensitive than the detection of halogens after the Lassaigne decomposition procedure a n d it is also n o t suitable for the treatment of volatile substances, it totally eliminates the interfering effect of cyanide and thiocyanate ions.

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Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds by L. Mázor

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