By Anastasios Tsonis
Textbook for brief undergraduate classes in atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics or traditional technology courses.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics
7) An ideal gas of p, V, T undergoes the following successive changes: (1) it is warmed under a constant pressure until its volume doubles, (2) it is warmed under constant volume until its pressure doubles, and (3) it expands isothermally until its pressure returns to p. Calculate in each case the values of p, V, T and plot all three changes in a (p, V ) diagram. 1 Work As we have already mentioned, in atmospheric thermodynamics we will be dealing with equilibrium states of air. If a system (parcel of air, for example) is at equilibrium with its environment no changes take place in either of them.
2) where −W ad is the work done adiabatically by the external force on the system (+W ad is the work done by the system). 2) implies that the work done in this case depends only on states i and f , not on the particular transformation i → f . This is contrary to what we proved previously – that the work done is not an exact diﬀerential and that it depends on the particular transformation i → f . The discrepancy is due to the fact that here we are dealing with adiabatic transformations. Only in this case does the work done not depend on the particular transformation.
E. e. η = 0) it dictates that dp = 0. As such a polytropic process pV η = constant reduces to an isobaric, to an isothermal, to an adiabatic, and to isochoric process for η = 0, 1, γ, and ∞, respectively. Having said this we must add that in the atmosphere over a rather wide range of motions the timescale for an air parcel (our system) needed to adjust to environmental changes of pressure, and to perform work, is short compared with the corresponding timescale of heat transfer. For example, above the boundary layer and outside the clouds the timescale of heat transfer is about two weeks whereas the timescale of displacements that aﬀect a parcel is of the order of hours to a day.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Thermodynamics by Anastasios Tsonis