By P. G. Tait

Excerpt from An effortless Treatise on Quaternions

To the 1st variation of this paintings, released in 1867, the next was once prefixed: -

'The current paintings was once began in 1859, whereas i used to be a Professor of arithmetic, and much extra prepared at Quaternion research than i will now fake to be. Had it been then accomplished I must have had technique of trying out its educating features, and of bettering it, prior to e-book, the place stumbled on poor in that respect.

'The tasks of one other Chair, and Sir W. Hamilton's want that my quantity aren't seem until after the ebook of his parts, interrupted my already huge arrangements. I had labored out approximately all of the examples of Analytical Geometry in Todhunter's assortment, and that i had made numerous actual functions of the Calculus, in particular to Crystallography, to Geometrical Optics, and to the Induction of Currents, as well as these on Kinematics, Electrodynamics, Fresnel's Wave floor, &c., that are reprinted within the current paintings from the Quarterly Mathematical magazine and the complaints of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

'Sir W. Hamilton, whilst I observed him yet a number of days earlier than his loss of life, advised me to arrange my paintings once attainable, his being virtually prepared for ebook. He then expressed, extra strongly maybe than he had ever performed earlier than, his profound conviction of the significance of Quaternions to the development of actual technological know-how; and his hope quite trouble-free treatise at the topic should still quickly be published.

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**Additional info for An elementary treatise on quaternions**

**Sample text**

Lower limit = 13 - 7 = 6, upper limit 27 - 7 = 20. Example 2— How much work is done to pump the water out of a full cylindrical can radius 10 feet, height 20 feet—if the water is to be pumped over the top? W = density (weight/volume) x volume x height over which the water is pumped. Each section of water pumped is a thin cylinder V = π(10)2 dy. Height pumped (see the figure) is 20 - y. 5 pounds per cubic foot. Note 1 If the outlet were 17 feet over the can, we would have 37 - y. Note 2 If the can were three-fourths full, integral limits would be 0 to 15.

H = ∆y.

Substituting x = 2 in this equation, we get [A(2) + B](2 - 2) + C(22 + 5) = 9(2)2 - 5(2) + 19. From this we get 9C = 45 or C = 5. Substituting C = 5 into Eq. (1), we get A = 4. Substituting A = 4 into Eq. (2), we get B = 3. Splitting the first fraction on the right, Example 23— We have two linear factors, and 1 is to the second power—soooo ..... Multiply and group; we get: Now there are two good numbers, -2 and 3, but, as we will see, 3 is enough. Putting x = 3 into both sides of Eq. (1), we get A = 4.

### An elementary treatise on quaternions by P. G. Tait

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