By M. J. Stabler (auth.)
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Extra resources for Agricultural Economics and Rural Land-use
Hired labour. The study of hired labour in agriculture has concentrated on the level of earnings and the rate of migration, from which research on utilisation and productivity have been generated. S. market, and Metcalf's  on earnings in the United Kingdom. Metcalf has also done work with Cowling on wage determination in agriculture ( see Cowling, Metcalf and Rayner ). The most important variables in the supply of labour are seen as the relationship between wages in agriculture and other sectors, the level of unemployment, age, education and variables representing non-income benefits.
IV. Market structure changes - although examined under short-run pricesupport measures, certain market policies are intended to improve agricultural efficiency. Two of the most favoured measures are those which attempt to raise farm incomes by reducing the costs of moving food products from the farmer to the consumer, and those making agriculture more competitive. Integration, co-operatives and marketing boards are alleged to achieve both these aims with the threat of intervention by governments where there might be the elements of monopoly.
These amount to variations on a theme of those policies given in (i), for the devices are designed to increase farm income by reducing costs at the farm level. The intention, assuming a given market price, is that profit margins will rise, increase farm incomes and thus encourage expansion of production. Many measures take the form of grants for fixed and variable capital inputs. For example, in the United Kingdom there are grants for drainage, farm buildings, power and fuel, which lead to the expansion of production of agricultural products generally.
Agricultural Economics and Rural Land-use by M. J. Stabler (auth.)