By Bozhong Li
The writer makes a thorough research of alterations in key components of creation and in styles of enlargement in agricultural creation in China's Yangzi delta through the 3 centuries sooner than 1850, leading to a rise in either land and exertions productiveness.
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Extra resources for Agricultural Development in Jiangnan, 1620–1850
It is hard to know what levels Jiangnan's urbanization reached in the early and mid-Qing times. This is not only because of the lack of urban population statistics, but also because of uncertainty over defining urban population. Here we can make a rough estimate based on previous studies. Gilbert Rozman estimated that in Jiangsu province the proportion of urban population was about 7 per cent of the total popUlation in the early Labour, Land and Climate 21 Qing (Rozman, 1973: 218, 273). G. 4 per cent of total population (Skinner, 1977).
Agricultural labour force Not all rural residents engaged in agriculture. It is well known that in Ming-Qing Jiangnan increasing numbers of peasants left agriculture for other occupations, especially handicrafts. Therefore the number of workers in agriculture is also intimately related to the level of rural industrialization. I will discuss this subject in more detail in Chapter 8. Here I will make some general observations. Even if rural handicrafts did not flourish, not all rural adults with capacity for labour would have been engaged in agriculture.
Then mulberry saplings are transplanted from nurseries. Orchard management includes four major kinds of work: covering the mulberry rows with mud (yongni), weeding, getting rid of insects and pruning branches (xiuzhi yangxing). After gathering the leaves, they are sent to the silkworms. Silkworm raising and silk reeling are the two jobs that follow. The production process for cotton begins with preparing the land, then sowing seeds, cultivating the crops and finally gathering the harvest. Preparing the land for cotton is similar to preparations for rice and sowing is similar to sowing for wheat.
Agricultural Development in Jiangnan, 1620–1850 by Bozhong Li