By ACI Committee 305
Environmental elements, comparable to excessive ambient temperature, low humidity, excessive wind, or either low humidity and excessive wind, impact concrete houses and the development operations of combining, transporting, and putting of the concrete fabrics. This advisor offers measures that may be taken to lessen the bad results of those environmental elements and decrease the possibility of severe problems.
This advisor defines scorching climate, discusses strength difficulties, and provides practices meant to reduce them. those practices contain deciding upon fabrics and proportions, precooling constituents, and batching. different issues mentioned contain size of haul, attention of concrete temperature as positioned, amenities for dealing with concrete on the web site, and, through the early curing interval, putting and curing recommendations, and applicable checking out and inspection tactics in scorching climatic conditions. The fabrics, approaches, qc measures, and inspections defined during this rfile will be established, monitored, or played as appropriate merely by way of contributors retaining definitely the right ACI certifications or identical.
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Extra resources for ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting
England’s White Chalk Cliffs are an example. Chalk is a soft, porous type of limestone (CaCO3) consisting mainly of the hard parts of microscopic organisms called coccoliths (inset). ) Variable Components Air includes many gases and particles that vary significantly from time to time and place to place. Important examples include water vapor, aerosols, and ozone. Although usually present in small percentages, they can have significant effects on weather and climate. 390 CO2 concentration (ppm) 380 370 Water Vapor The amount of water vapor in the air varies considerably, from practically none at all up to about 4 percent by volume.
When plants die and decay or are burned, this biomass is oxidized, and carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. uniform, its percentage has been rising steadily for more than a century. Figure 1–17 is a graph showing the growth in atmospheric CO2 since 1958. Much of this rise is attributed to the burning of ever-increasing quantities of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. Some of this additional carbon dioxide is absorbed by the waters of the ocean or is used by plants, but more than 40 percent remains in the air.
During photosynthesis, organisms use the Sun’s energy to produce organic material (energetic molecules of sugar containing hydrogen and carbon) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The first bacteria probably used hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as the source of hydrogen rather than water. One of the earliest bacteria, cyanobacteria (once called blue-green algae), began to produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. Initially, the newly released oxygen was readily consumed by chemical reactions with other atoms and molecules (particularly iron) in the ocean (Figure 1–F).
ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting by ACI Committee 305