By Mike Allerhand (auth.)
This short offers a roadmap for the R language and programming setting with signposts to extra assets and documentation.
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Extra info for A Tiny Handbook of R
Character values are compared alphabetically and case-sensitively: the alphabet is in increasing order, for example "ant" \ "bee", and upper-case is greater than lower-case so "Ant" [ "ant". Conditional operators are vectorized as follows. When two vectors are compared the shorter is recycled if necessary to make the vectors the same length, then the conditional operation is applied between pairs of corresponding cells. The result is a logical vector the same length as the longer argument. For example: [ x ¼ cð2; 4; 6; 8; 10Þ [ x [¼ 6 # 6 is recycled to match the length of x [ y ¼ cð"apple"; "apple"; "orange"; "apple"; "orange"Þ [ y ¼¼ "apple" Logical vectors can be combined using the operators28: & (AND), | (OR), and !
39 See also functions melt and cast in package reshape. 5 Reshaping 35 variables in a data frame that are to be stacked or unstacked. It handles unbalanced data by inserting NA as appropriate, and also treats time-invariant variables appropriately. names to specify the time-varying variable to be unstacked, and arguments idvar and timevar to specify the subject and time-point factors: [ dat ¼ reshapeðChickWeight; direction¼"wide"; v:names¼"weight"; þ idvar¼"Chick"; timevar¼"Time"Þ The result contains NA because the data are not balanced.
2 Tables of Cell Means and Other Summaries The tapply function maps a given function to groups of a vector split on one or more factors. If the vector is split on more than one factor, the factors must be passed as a single list argument. For example a table of cell means using the warpbreaks data: [ withðwarpbreaks; tapplyðbreaks; tension; meanÞÞ # one factor [ withðwarpbreaks; tapplyðbreaks; listðtension; woolÞ; meanÞÞ # two factors Any function can be applied, for example instead of mean use var for a table of cell variances.
A Tiny Handbook of R by Mike Allerhand (auth.)