Download e-book for iPad: A Natural History of Western Trees by Peattie, D.C. and Landacre, P.

By Peattie, D.C. and Landacre, P.

Certainly one of actual classics of yank nature writing now in paperback; the opposite is A typical background of timber of jap and critical North the United States.

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Extra resources for A Natural History of Western Trees

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4 Wide-scale mirror relascope At a later stage, Bitterlich constructed the wide-scale mirror relascope for measuring upper diameters of large trees and to apply the relascope technique to estimate the basal area per hectare for large BAF (see Figure 3-9). The instrument is equipped with slope scales for degrees (G) and percentage (P), respectively, with four narrow black–white bands to measure upper diameters and to estimate the basal area per hectare for low basal-area factors, with a white band 1 (Zb1), which corresponds with BAF = 1 and distance factor 50 as well as with five black and five white bands, which correspond with BAF = 1.

The latter serves as an additional predictor variable to estimate tree volumes from volume functions with three predictor variables. The instrument consists of a parabolically curved arm with a 1 cm graduation, which is mounted on a hand-held 5–7 m aluminum pole. In order to improve visibility, the diameter class limits enclose 1 cm wide strips of different colors. During measuring the straight section of the caliper is in contact with the stem. In order to eliminate a positive operator-bias, the operator stands exactly vertically underneath the caliper arm.

The Haga hypsometer replaces the multirange target of the Blume–Leiss with a tape, which is provided with a fixed and a detachable target blade, which correspond to fixed distances. The Suunto clinometer is a small, hand-held, compact instrument, equipped with a freely movable scale card, which is surrounded by a damping liquid and supported by a bearing assembly (Figure 3-16). The instrument has two built-in scales to obtain tree heights for fixed distances of 15 and 20 m. When measuring tree heights from a distance of 30 and 40 m respectively, the readings obtained with the 15 and 20 m scales, respectively are doubled.

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A Natural History of Western Trees by Peattie, D.C. and Landacre, P.


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